Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell

Buildings of the Future  *  EcoGeneration  *  Net Zero Energy  *  Solar Cogeneration  Solar Trigeneration

For ad rates, send email to:

"Changing the Way the World Makes and Uses Energy" SM


"Net Zero Energy" to Become $1.3 Trillion/year Industry by 2035

Austin, Texas

Follow us on Twitter



Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell

What is a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell?

Diagram: How a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) works. A PAFC consists of liquid phosphoric acid electrolyte sandwiched between an anode (negatively charged electrode) and a cathode (positively charged electrode). The processes that take place in the fuel cell are as follows: 1. Hydrogen fuel is channeled through field flow plates to the anode on one side of the fuel cell, while oxygen from the air is channeled to the cathode on the other side of the cell.  2. At the anode, a platinum catalyst causes the hydrogen to split into positive hydrogen ions (protons) and negatively charged electrons.  3. The phosphoric acid electrolyte allows only the positively charged ions to pass through it to the cathode.  The negatively charged electrons must travel along an external circuit to the cathode, creating an electrical current.  4. At the cathode, the electrons and positively charged hydrogen ions combine with oxygen to form water, which flows out of the cell.Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells use liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte—the acid is contained in a Teflon-bonded silicon carbide matrix—and porous carbon electrodes containing a platinum catalyst. The chemical reactions that take place in the cell are shown in the diagram to the right.

The Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) is considered the "first generation" of modern fuel cells. It is one of the most mature cell types and the first to be used commercially, with over 200 units currently in use. This type of fuel cell is typically used for stationary power generation, but some phosphoric acid fuel cells have been used to power large vehicles such as city buses.

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells are more tolerant of impurities in fossil fuels that have been reformed into hydrogen than other fuel cells. 

Phosphoric acid fuel cells are also less powerful than other fuel cells, given the same weight and volume. As a result, these fuel cells are typically large and heavy. Phosphoric acid fuel cells are also expensive. Phosphoric acid fuel cells require an expensive platinum catalyst, which raises the cost of the fuel cell. A typical phosphoric acid fuel cell costs between $4,000 and $4,500 per kilowatt to operate.

What is a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell?

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC) evolved from work in the 1960's aimed at producing a fuel cell which would operate directly on coal. While direct operation on coal seems less likely today, operation on coal-derived fuel gases or natural gas is viable.


Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell

Buildings of the Future  *  EcoGeneration  *  Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell  *  Net Zero Energy  *  Solar Cogeneration

For ad rates, send email to:






Net Zero Energy Market to Become $1.3 Trillion/year Industry by 2035

Net Zero Energy
Buildings Are Coming;
What About The Buildings Already Standing?

The market for Distributed PV, also known as "Rooftop PV"
will be a $60 billion/year market by 2013!



  Renewable Energy Institute

"Leading the Renewable Energy Revolution"


Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell

Copyright © 2003
All Rights Reserved